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Boreholes in South Africa
Having a borehole in South Africa
Planning and establishing a water production borehole in South Africa is certainly an attractive investment. Safe to say that the correct process must be followed, resulting in a more successful production borehole.
The process of getting to learn the appropriate borehole terminology, then getting to do the borehole Siting, finding the right drilling company, testing the borehole water yield, designing the borehole pump equipment configuration properly and then to install and commission the borehole pump according to the standards would save on huge losses.
Many surveys have been conducted on whether a borehole is worth the investment or not, and there is an abundance of literature available on boreholes in South Africa. One such article can be found in a ”BWA Journal” dated September 2016. It should be noted however, that determining the value of a borehole, does not just lie by the investment costs, but by the total water security value including but not limited to the quality of the borehole water and to the storage of backup water. The value of an alternative water supply become more and more valuable as the current water suppliers in South Africa pay less and less attention to the maintenance of infrastructure, to the long term planning for water usage and security and the situation is exacerbated by the poor quality workmanship from a more and more uninterested work force. Is Cape Town 2017-2018 not an example of this?
Certainly everyone has a different requirement for their borehole water, however the fundamental one is simply water security, that one can manage and control on your own, and ensure that there would near always be a supply of good quality water.
South Africa and the Climate
South Africa’s climatic conditions generally range from Mediterranean in the southwestern corner of South Africa to temperate in the interior plateau, and subtropical in the northeast. A small area in the northwest has a desert climate. Most of the country has warm, sunny days and cool nights. Rainfall generally occurs during summer (November through March), although in the southwest, around Cape Town, rainfall occurs in winter (June to August). Temperatures are influenced by variations in elevation, terrain, and ocean currents more than latitude.
Temperature and rainfall patterns vary in response to the movement of a high pressure belt that circles the globe between 25º and 30º south latitude during the winter and low-pressure systems that occur during summer. There is very little difference in average temperatures from south to north, however, in part because the inland plateau rises slightly in the northeast. For example, the average annual temperature in Cape Town is 17ºC, and in Pretoria, 17.5ºC, although these cities are separated by almost ten degrees of latitude. Maximum temperatures often exceed 32ºC in the summer, and reach 38ºC in some areas of the far north. The country’s highest recorded temperatures, close to 48ºC, have occurred in both the Northern Cape and Mpumalanga.
Frost occurs in high altitudes during the winter months. The coldest temperatures have been recorded about 250 kilometers northeast of Cape Town, where the average annual minimum temperature is -6.1º C. Record snowfalls (almost fifty centimeters) occurred in July 1994 in mountainous areas bordering Lesotho.
Climatic conditions vary noticeably between east and west, largely in response to the warm Agulhas ocean current, which sweeps southward along the Indian Ocean coastline in the east for several months of the year, and the cold Benguela current, which sweeps northward along the Atlantic Ocean coastline in the west. Air temperatures in Durban, on the Indian Ocean, average nearly 6º C warmer than temperatures at the same latitude on the Atlantic Ocean coast. The effects of these two currents can be seen even at the narrow peninsula of the Cape of Good Hope, where water temperatures average 4º C higher on the east side than on the west.
Rainfall varies considerably from west to east. In the northwest, annual rainfall often remains below 200 millimeters. Much of the eastern Highveld, in contrast, receives 500 millimeters to 900 millimeters of rainfall per year; occasionally, rainfall there exceeds 2,000 millimeters. A large area of the centre of the country receives about 400 millimeters of rain, on average, and there are wide variations closer to the coast. The 400-millimeter “rainfall line” has been significant because land east of the rainfall line is generally suitable for growing crops, and land west of the rainfall line, only for livestock grazing or crop cultivation on irrigated land.
Water and water supply in South Africa
Boreholes, Boreholes and Boreholes.